Barnology - Glossary of Barn Terminology
- BANK BARN-Two level barn
whose upper level is entered from a bank or hillside or by a ramp constructed
against the barn.
- BATTEN-A narrow board used
to cover gaps between siding boards or sheathing; also used to brace and stiffen
boards joined edge-to-edge as in a batten door.
- BAY-Area of a building,
physically defined and used for specific functions.
- BENT-Heavy timber
framework section of barn's superstructure, which is connected to similar
sections to complete the barn frame.
- BENT CONFIGURATION-Pattern
produced by posts, tie beams, and braces of an assembled bent.
- BOX STALL-A walled
enclosure in which an animal can move about untethered.
- CANTILEVERED-Supported by
beams that extend from the supported feature (e.g., a forebay) back beneath the
superstructure of a building.
- COLLAR-(Collar tie)-A
horizontal member connecting and stabilizing rafter pairs. It may be in
compression to prevent rafters from sagging or in tension to prevent rafters
- COLLAR BEAM-The horizontal
member that connects and stiffens opposing principal rafters, thus stabilizing
the roof truss.
- COMMON RAFTERS-Light,
inclined timbers, which are supported by purlins and which support the roof
- CUPOLA-Small, tower-like
structure on roof providing additional light and ventilation.
- EAVE-Lower overhanging
edge of a sloping roof.
- FOREBAY-Eave side over-hang
of upper level of the barn. (Forebay comes from the terms Vorbau or Vorschuss
in low German.)
- GABLE-Triangular upper
wall space extending from the eaves to the roof ridge.
- GABLE ROOF-A ridged roof
terminating at ends in a gable.
- GAMBREL ROOF-A ridged roof
each side of which has two slopes.
- GIRT-Horizontal framing
member connecting end posts below roof plate.
- HAY HOOD-An extension of
the ridge of a barn roof which protects or supports pulley attachments used to
load hay into the loft.
- HAY TRACK AND FORK-Pulley
and fork mounted on track below roof ridge, used to carry hay or straw into
- HEWN BENTS-Bent made of
framing members that have been cut and shaped using hand tools.
- JOINERY-The craft of
connecting timber-frame members by forming joints.
- JOISTS-Any of the parallel
timbers that hold up the planks of a floor or the laths of a ceiling.
- KING POST-A vertical
supporting post between the apex of a triangular truss and the base, or tie
beam, as at the ridge of a roof.
- LINTEL-A beam with its
ends resting on two posts, often over a wall opening such as a window or door.
- LOFT-Hay and straw storage
area above stable; upper level storage area of a barn.
- MORTISE-In a
mortise-and-tenon joint, the slot or hole cut into one member, into which is
inserted the tenon from another member.
- MOW-Space in barn reserved
for hay and straw storage.
- PLATE-A beam capping the
exterior posts or studs to support the rafters.
- POST-TO-PURLIN-Barn bent
in which interior posts reach to purlin, eliminating the need for queen posts.
- PURLIN-Timber placed under
and horizontal to rafters to provide their support.
- QUEEN POST-Vertical or
canted roof framework member supporting purlin and resting on the tie beam.
alternating stone blocks laid at wall corners to add strength to the corner.
- RAFTER-Any of the boards
that slope from the ridge of a roof to the eaves and serve to support the roof.
- RIDGE BOARD (Ridge Pole)
Board connecting rafter ends at peak of gable roof.
- ROOF FRAMEWORK-Arrangement
of queen posts, struts, and braces which supports the purlins and roof rafters.
- SILL-Heavy frame member
resting on foundation and supporting posts and braces of outer wall frame.
- STRAINING BEAM-Heavy
member placed horizontally at the head of queen posts to prevent inward
collapse of the truss.
- SUMMER BEAM-Heavy main
horizontal beam, anchored in gable foundation walls, that supports barn frame
above or forebay beams.
- TENON-In mortise and tenon
joints, the short shaft projecting from one member which is fitted into mortise
in other joint member
- THRESHING FLOOR-Floor
space between mows, on which grains were hand-threshed by flailing.
- THRESHING WALL-A wall,
usually about three feet tall, between the threshing floor and an adjacent
bay. (Sometimes called "waste wall".)
- TIE BEAM-Uppermost cross
beam which connects end posts of bent.
- TIMBER FRAME-Frame
construction used in vernacular buildings before 1900 in Europe and America
consisting of heavy, frequently hand hewn, hand fitted members which are
connected by mortise and tenon joints.
- TONGUE AND GROOVE-A joint
in which a tongue or tenon in one board fits exactly into a groove in another.
- TROLLEY-A wheeled apparatus
that rolls on an overhead rail or track and from which is suspended a grappling
fork. This was used to unload loose hay from a wagon. The fork, filled with
the hay would then be drawn up by rope to the trolley and moved to the desired
place in the hay mow. A trip rope would then drop the hay.
arrangement of beams, braces, and ties to form a rigid framework.
This glossary is from a larger one compiled by Kyle Peterson, Beloit, KS. Kyle serves on the Advisory Committee of the Kansas Barn Alliance.
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